Skip navigation
Nuclear Safeguards Education Portal
  

Spent Fuel Safeguards Detection Techniques

Different safeguards detection techniques have been developed and are under development to exploit the spent fuel signatures for safeguards verifications. 

Table 10 is an interactive table listing the safeguards techniques currently in use by the IAEA.  It gives the name of the equipment used, a description, the signature or method in use, and the specific detector type used by the technique.

You will encounter several of these interactive tables in this section of the course.  You can navigate these tables using the arrows or tabs (or, for mobile devices, using the menu or swiping).   Clicking on the link in each box will take you to additional resources on that safeguards detection technique.

Table 10. Safeguards techniques in use by the IAEA (from Ref.10).  Use the arrows or swipe to navigate through the different techniques.

Advanced experimental fuel counter (AEFC)

Description/Primary Application:  Characterization of spent fuel from research reactors stored under water

Signature/Method:  Neutron coincidence with optional active interrogation

Detectors Used:  He-3 tubes with AmLi neutron source


More Information

CANDU bundle verifier (CBVB)

Description/Primary Application:   Verification of the presence of CANDU fuel bundles stored in either stacks or baskets in a spent fuel pond

Signature/Method:   γ-ray intensity scanning

Detectors Used:   CdTe


More Information

Cask radiation profiling system for dry storage casks (CRPS)

Description/Primary Application:    Gross defect device takes radiation profiles from spent fuel storage containers for re-verification

Signature/Method:    γ-ray intensity scanning

Detectors Used: CdZnTe

 

More Information

Digital Cerenkov viewing device (DCVD)

Fig 10-cerenkov
Picture taken from the top of a spent fuel
assembly with a Digital Cerenkov Viewing Device (Source:  IAEA-CN-184/338).

Description/Primary Application:  Highly sensitive digital device for viewing Cerenkov light from long cooled, low burnup fuel

Signature/Method:  Cerenkov radiation

Detectors Used: image intensifier sensitive to UV radiation

More Information

Fork detector irradiated fuel measuring system (FDET)

Description/Primary Application:  Detector system that straddles light water reactor fuel assemblies with pairs of neutron and γ-ray detectors. Gross γ ray and neutron intensities and ratios of intensities can give specific information on the fuel assembly

Signature/Method: Gross neutron activity and Gross γ-ray activity

Detectors Used: fission chamber (gross neutron activity) and ion chamber (gross γ-ray activity)

More Information 

Improved Cerenkov viewing device (ICVD)

IAEA-Safegaurds Techniques Equipment -INVS-1-R2-2011 (002)
Improved Cerenkov Viewing Device (ICVD) (Source: IAEA Safeguards Techniques and Equipment)

Description/Primary Application:      Hand-held light intensifying device optimized to view Cerenkov light (near ultraviolet) in a spent fuel storage pond. System can be used in a lighted area. Primarily used to identify irradiated light water reactor fuel assemblies

Signature/Method:      Cerenkov radiation

Detectors Used: image intensifier sensitive to UV radiation

 

More Information

Irradiated fuel attribute tester (IRAT)

Description/Primary Application:      Gross defect device used for verifying fission product presence in an irradiated fuel assembly

Signature/Method:      γ-ray spectroscopy

Detectors Used: CdZnTe

 

More Information

Neutron and gamma attribute tester (NGAT)

Description/Primary Application:      Gross defect device used for verifying spent fuel assemblies, fresh MOX fuel assemblies, and open or closed containers holding various radiated and non-irradiated materials including non-fuel items

Signature/Method:       Gross neutron activity and γ-ray spectroscopy

Detectors Used:  Fission chamber or B-10 (gross neutron activity) and CdZnTe (γ-ray spectroscopy)

 

More Information

Spent fuel attribute tester (SFAT)

Description/Primary Application:      Gross defect device used for verifying the presence of fission product or activation product at the top of the irradiated fuel assembly

Signature/Method:      γ-ray spectroscopy

Detectors Used: NaI or CdZnTe

 

Spent fuel attribute tester

Spent fuel coincident counter (SFCC)

Description/Primary Application:      Underwater verification of Pu in canned fast breeder reactor spent fuel.

Signature/Method:      Neutron coincidence

Detectors Used: He-3 tubes

 

More Information 

Safeguards MOX python (SMOPY)

Description/Primary Application:      Gross defect device combines gross neutron counting with low level γ spectroscopy to characterize any kind of spent fuel without movement of spent fuel

Signature/Method:      Neutron coincidence with optional active interrogation and γ-ray spectroscopy

Detectors Used: fission chamber with AmLi neutron source (neutron coincidence) and CdZnTe (γ-ray spectroscopy)

 

More Information

 

 

 

Page 34 / 43