To utilize the measured data, we need to be able to characterize the total uncertainty in the measurement. We have already established that this uncertainty will have both a random and systematic component. Typically, the simplest way to combine the random and systematic errors is to simply add the variances associated with each component or

where σ is the total standard deviation, σ_{r} is the
standard deviation due to random errors, and σ_{s} is the
standard deviation due to systematic errors

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